Strong Topics For A Criminal Justice Research Paper

 

research paper on criminal justice

How to find great research paper topics for criminal justice. If you are tasked with a research paper in the area of criminal justice you are in luck because there are many different subcategories in the field of criminal justice all of which have a plethora of potential topics. May 21,  · Criminal Justice Research Paper Examples. Some people find it extremely useful to look for inspiration of the work of others. While we believe this might be a cause for plagiarism, we cannot refuse your right to examine some of the finest samples of the criminal justice essay papers; we have created on behalf of our clients. Sep 20,  · Сriminal Justice Research Paper Topics September 20, Society and Justice Topics. Capital Punishment in Different Societies; Research Topics in Criminal Justice System. Criminal Law. Problem-Solving Courts. Public Health and Criminal Justice. Mass Media, Crime, and Justice. Forensic Science.4/5.


Criminal Justice Research Paper Topics - EssayEmpire


This sample criminal justice research paper is published for educational and informational purposes only. Free research papers, are not written by our writers, they are contributed by users, so we are not responsible for the content of this free sample paper.

If you want to buy a high quality research paper on criminal justice at affordable price please use custom research paper writing services. The American criminal justice system is a net work of government agencies and individuals whose purpose is to apprehend, prosecute, and punish criminal offenders, maintain societal order, research paper on criminal justice, prevent and control crime, and ensure public safety. Most criminal justice agencies and organizations that are responsible for these functions can be classified under three primary groups: law enforcement, courts, and corrections.

Although this is true in many respects, the criminal justice system resembles more research paper on criminal justice a loosely connected chain of individual entities that have separate and, at times, competing roles. For example, one of the responsibilities of law enforcement is to apprehend and arrest offenders, a function that operates on research paper on criminal justice crime control, or reduction research paper on criminal justice crime, model.

Courts in the criminal justice system, however, operate under the due process model, which emphasizes fair application of the law and protection of individual rights. Individual entities within the system also frequently make significant decisions without consideration of how their decisions will impact the larger system. An aggressive driving while research paper on criminal justice law enforcement strategy, for example, can result in a high number of arrests.

This decision can significantly affect the resources and case management capability at both the court and corrections stages of the system, research paper on criminal justice. Finally, the structure and organization of the criminal justice system vary widely among federal, state, county, and local jurisdictions.

Acts which are classified as criminal violations in some jurisdictions may not be violations in others. A city prosecutor may endorse particular criminal justice policies that are not equally supported by the county prosecutor.

In short, given the lack of coordination and consistency among individual entities, research paper on criminal justice, the criminal justice system is often referred research paper on criminal justice as a non system. A common thread woven throughout the criminal justice system is the use of discretion, or individual professional judgment, to guide decision making.

Not all persons who commit a crime can be arrested and processed through each stage of the criminal justice system. Therefore, criminal justice personnel in all levels routinely use discretion to make decisions on whether or how criminal offenders should proceed through the system.

Law enforcement officers use discretion in deciding whether to issue a verbal warning or a ticket for a speeding violation. Prosecutors make discretionary decisions as to what cases to file with the court.

The decision to release an inmate to parole is up to the discretion of the parole board members. While there is the potential for abuse i. Law enforcement serves several functions in the criminal justice system: preventing, detecting, and investigating crime, enforcing the law, protecting the public and property, apprehending and arresting offenders, and community service.

Media images often depict law enforcement personnel as crime fighters who are regularly involved in high speed police pursuits, make large numbers of arrests, and routinely handle crisis situations. Contrary to these images, however, law enforcement officers spend most of their time gathering information for investigations and reports, maintaining order, establishing ties with community members, and providing services.

Nationwide there are approximately 18, federal, state, county, and municipal law enforcement organizations. This estimate includes specialized law enforcement agencies such as university and college police, port authority police, and railroad police. In light of the increase in private security forces, many of which have some form of law enforcement powers, it is difficult to deter mine the exact number of organizations.

Adding to the problem is the fact that there is little consistency among law enforcement agencies in terms of roles and responsibilities. Agencies can vary from one another according to mission, geographical area, community size, and community expectations. Entry into the research paper on criminal justice justice system begins when law enforcement officers make an arrest for a crime. Law enforcement officers rarely observe crimes in progress.

Reports from victims, witnesses, or other citizens, or information from an investigation, are the main sources of crime reporting. Therefore, law enforcement officers rely heavily on their relationship with the public to perform their job.

Law enforcement officers cannot arrest all citizens for all criminal violations, so they routinely use discretion to decide the best outcome for each situation. This outcome may involve hand ling criminal violations informally e. Given their authority to decide who enters the criminal justice system, law enforcement officers are often called gatekeepers of the system.

After a law enforcement officer makes an arrest the case is presented to the prosecutor, who decides to either file formal charges against the defendant or not file charges and release the defendant. This action marks the transition into the courts stage of the criminal justice system.

Many of the most significant decisions in the criminal justice system are made in the criminal courts. After an offender is arrested, the courts assume the responsibility of bail issues and proceedings, preliminary hearings, arraignments, pre trial motions, and plea bargains. At the same time, court personnel prosecutors, research paper on criminal justice, defense attorneys, judges make determinations as to whether a case proceeds through the criminal justice system, is removed from the system, or is referred to services outside of the system e.

Later phases in the court process establish the guilt or innocence of the accused, and the type of punishment, if any, a convicted offender should receive.

Courts in the United States operate under a dual court system, which encompasses both federal and state courts. In addition to one federal court structure, research paper on criminal justice, each state operates its own court system which differs by organization, procedural steps, rules, and constitution.

In general, most states have three levels of courts in their judicial system: lower courts, trial courts, and appellate courts. At the lowest level are courts of limited jurisdiction or lower courts. Research paper on criminal justice courts typically hear cases on minor or misdemeanor offenses such as trespassing, theft, assault, and violation of city codes. Some jurisdictions have specific courts for traffic violations, family and probate issues divorce, wills, child supportand small claims courts.

Preliminary hearings for major civil suits and felony criminal cases may also be conducted in the lower courts. Cases generally move research paper on criminal justice the lower courts quickly and no detailed record of the proceedings is kept.

At the next highest level are the trial courts. Also called courts of general jurisdiction, criminal trial courts hear cases ranging from minor offenses to serious felonies.

The purpose of the trial courts is to decide on matters of fact and evidence. Most courts of general jurisdiction also hear cases on appeal from the lower courts and have the authority to grant a trial de novo, research paper on criminal justice, or new trial. Under a trial de novo, the trial courts retry cases as if they have never been heard before.

Although much of the media and public perception of what occurs in court proceedings is based on the trial court, most cases do not go to trial. Instead, the majority of cases are handled informally through bargaining between the primary court actors: the judge, prosecutor, and defense attorney.

The highest level of courts in each state is called the appellate court, supreme court, or court of last resort. After a verdict has been reached in a trial court, either the defense or prosecution can appeal the case to the appellate courts.

Unlike trial courts, however, appellate courts do not decide on facts and evidence. Rather, they review the written transcript from the trial courts to ensure the proceedings were fair and carried out in compliance with the state law.

The highest federal appellate court is the US Supreme Court. Comprised of eight justices and a chief justice, the US Supreme Court hears a select number of cases on matters related to the federal statutes and the US Constitution. Courts are also responsible for sentencing convicted offenders. Sentences can come in many forms including imprisonment, fines, research paper on criminal justice, restitution, community service, probation, and, in some cases, death.

Several factors are taken into account in the sentencing phase. Sentences, like convictions, can be appealed to a higher court; most death sentences undergo an automatic review by the appellate courts. Like many areas of the criminal justice system, the courts are overburdened. Consequently, given the high volume of cases presented to the system, courts are often unable to process cases in a timely manner, research paper on criminal justice. Suggestions to minimize the clogged courts consist of hiring more court administrators and personnel, scheduling night courts, alternative courts for specific offenses i.

The corrections component of the criminal justice system is responsible for managing both defendants in pre trial detention and convicted offenders who have been sentenced by the courts. This includes maintaining secure facilities such as jails and prisons, as well as non institutional community based corrections such as probation and intermediate sanctions. Finally, corrections personnel monitor inmates who are released from prisons out onto parole.

Jails and prisons are the most common forms of incarceration in the United States. They are predominantly used for detaining offenders temporarily before trial and for housing inmates convicted of serious crimes who present too great a risk research paper on criminal justice be placed on probation.

Although both jails and prisons house offenders, they differ in several respects. Jails are operated locally by municipal or county governments, and lodge inmates who have received short term sentences, generally a year or less, for misdemeanor offenses.

Jails also serve as tem porary holding facilities for inmates awaiting bond, research paper on criminal justice, trial, or transfer to prison. Community based corrections including day reporting and electronic monitoring may also operate from jail facilities. Prisons, on the other hand, are operated by state or federal governments and house inmates convicted of felonies.

Offenders can serve prison sentences ranging from longer than a year to life. Depending on the seriousness of the offense and risk to public safety, prisoners will be sent to facilities ranging in security levels from minimum, medium, to maximum.

While the organization and structure of jail and prison systems vary among federal, state, and local levels, all share the problem of inmate overcrowding. Prison overcrowding can result in ineffective prison management, behavioral problems among inmates, limited resources, and a reduction in rehabilitative program opportunities.

Constructing more prisons, releasing inmates early, diverting less serious cases to intensive supervision probation, and contracting with privately owned prisons have been suggested to alleviate overcrowding.

In addition to the problems associated with overcrowding, there are other concerns about special populations housed within correctional facilities. Most offenders convicted of less serious crimes are sentenced to some form of probation, which is the supervised conditional release of offenders into the community.

Under probation, offenders must follow specific court ordered regulations or conditions which can require them to complete a substance abuse treatment program, obey curfews, meet regularly with a probation officer, and not associate with particular people e. Probation can be revoked if an offender violates any conditions specified by the courts, is arrested, or convicted of a new crime.

This means that, depending on the violation, offenders may be subject to further restrictive probation conditions, or possibly incarceration, for the completion of their sentence, research paper on criminal justice.

Probation as a form of community based corrections is a viable alter native to correctional confinement in jails and prisons. It emphasizes keeping offenders in their communities and with their families, without experiencing the emotional and physical costs of incarceration. Intermediate sanctions, which extend beyond simple probation, can be ordered for more serious offenders and can consist of intensive supervision strictly supervised probationday reporting centers, home confinement, and electronic monitoring.

Community service, boot camps, fines, and restitution are also commonly used intermediate sanctions. The supervised early release of an inmate from incarceration is called parole. Most states have parole boards that hold discretionary power to grant research paper on criminal justice to offenders who have not served their entire prison sentence. In some jurisdictions, parole boards also have the authority to define conditions of release and revoke parole if appropriate.

Parole functions, in part, to transition inmates from an institutional environment back into society.

 

Criminal Justice Research Paper - EssayEmpire

 

research paper on criminal justice

 

May 21,  · Criminal Justice Research Paper Examples. Some people find it extremely useful to look for inspiration of the work of others. While we believe this might be a cause for plagiarism, we cannot refuse your right to examine some of the finest samples of the criminal justice essay papers; we have created on behalf of our clients. - Criminal Justice Final Paper The criminal justice system is composed of many intricate parts that are all necessary for the system to work properly. Every division of the system accounts for its own specific tasks and does their best to protect the law of the land. The major components are the police, the courts and the corrections. How to find great research paper topics for criminal justice. If you are tasked with a research paper in the area of criminal justice you are in luck because there are many different subcategories in the field of criminal justice all of which have a plethora of potential topics.